Many of the characteristic speeds of an airplane—stalling, maneuvering, turbulence penetration, glide, best rate or angle of climb—are proxies for certain angles of attack. As proxies, however, they are unreliable. They fail to factor in what I will temporarily call, without attempting to pronounce it aloud, the Gweight. Gweight is the weight of the airplane multiplied by the G loading, and at any given moment, it is equal to the lifting force being produced by the wing. A 3,000-pound airplane in a 60-degree banked turn must pull 2 Gs to maintain altitude; its Gweight is 6,000 pounds. If a 1-G gust strikes the airplane during the turn, its Gweight rises to 9,000 pounds.