The right-seat pilot, 33, had 1,170 hours. He had gotten off to a somewhat rocky start in his flying career, failing his private check ride twice, but he was now a commercial pilot with single-engine and multiengine airplane, instrument, and Learjet SIC ratings. He still had problems, however. After a simulator session late in 2016, the instructor recorded a remarkable litany of faults, including not knowing how to start the engines, crashing on his first takeoff, going inverted during an unusual attitude recovery and crashing on landing during an ILS approach. Pilots who had flown with him described him as “hit-or-miss” and error-prone.