Novices are least equipped to catch situational mistakes, yet these are the types of mistakes that often have the most severe consequences. The very reason we are given a knowledge test as pilots is so that we will learn the knowledge to be aware of risks and risky situations, and know how to mitigate them. Unfortunately, in the past the FAA's knowledge tests have not focused well on the specific type of knowledge that will help pilots manage situational risks. There is hope for the future, however, because the new Airman Certification Standards (ACS), soon to be implemented by the FAA, will replace the Practical Test Standards (PTS). The ACS will provide standards for the knowledge a pilot is expected to know, and will also require pilots to demonstrate their ability to mitigate these kinds of risks.