During one mission over Germany in October 1943, Rosenthal's B-17 was the only airplane to return, with two engines dead, the intercom and oxygen system shot out and a large, ragged hole in the left wing. In September 1944, Rosenthal wasn't so lucky. His airplane was shot down over Germany. He suffered a broken arm and nose, evading capture until being picked up by the Free French Forces and returning to active duty as soon as his wounds healed. Five months later, on a mission over Berlin, Rosenthal again was shot down, this time being picked up by the Soviets before returning to duty. After the war the Jewish-born attorney participated in the Nuremberg trials, where he personally interrogated Hermann Göring, commander of the Luftwaffe.